There are 7,383 seats in state legislatures across the 50 states. With that large a number, there are almost always vacancies that arise due to resignation or death. Special elections are held through the year; the ones below are taking place on Election Day itself. That timing could increase turnout, especially in those places where there are other high profile races or proposals on the ballot.
Poll closings shown in Eastern Time (ET). Your individual polling place may have different hours - do not rely on these times to determine when to vote.
Republican Tom Buford passed away in July. He had been in the state senate for over 20 years, serving this district southwest of Lexington. The nominees were selected by their respective political parties. Polls close at 6:00 PM ET.
Kentucky State House Districts 51 and 89
Two vacancies in Districts 51 and 89
District 51: Long-time Rep. John Carney (R) died in July. Nominees were chosen by the parties. This is a rural district in the southcentral part of the state.
District 89: Republican Robert Goforth resigned in August. Nominees were selected by the parties. This district is also in the southern part of the state, to the east of District 51.
Polls close at 6:00 PM ET, except 7:00 PM ET for the portion of District 51 in the Central Time Zone.
The District 86 election will fill one of two vacancies. Republican Justin Fecteau resigned in July. This Augusta area district has been competitive in the past, so this is one to watch in a low turnout environment. The nominees are Republican James Orr and Democrat Raegan LaRochelle. Polls close at 8:00 PM.
Massachusetts State House Essex District 4 (Primaries)
One independent; one vacancy
This coastal district is located in the northeast part of the state. Republican Bradford Hill resigned in September after being appointed to the Massachusetts Gaming Commission. He had been in office since 1999, and had run unopposed over the last decade, except in 2018. That year, Hill defeated Democrat Allison Gustavson by 56% to 44%.
Two candidates from each party are seeking the nomination. The general election is November 30. Polls close at 8:00 PM ET.
District 8: Republican Peter Lucido won 62% to 38% in 2018, the last time this district north of Detroit was contested. Lucido resigned at the end of 2020 after being elected Macomb County Prosecutor.
District 28: Republican Peter MacGregor won 58% to 39% in 2018, the last time this Grand Rapids area district was contested. MacGregor also resigned the Senate at the end of 2020; he had been elected Ken County Treasurer. There are four candidates on the ballot.
District 32: Democrat Sampson Jackson resigned on June 30. Nine candidates are on the ballot to succeed him in this district in the east central part of the state. If nobody gets a majority, a top two runoff will take place November 23.
District 38: Democrat Tammy Witherspoon also resigned June 30. As there are only two candidates vying to succeed her, no runoff will be needed. The district is located in the southwestern part of the state.
The former incumbent of this Manhattan district, Democrat Brian Benjamin, was appointed lieutenant governor in September by Gov. Kathy Hochul. Benjamin was reelected in 2020 with 93% of the vote to 7% for Republican Oz Sultan.
Sultan is again the Republican nominee. Democrats nominated Cordell Cleare. Shana Harmongoff is running as a 3rd party candidate.
District 113: This Scranton area district was vacated after Democrat Martin Flynn won a special election for the state Senate in May. Flynn was reelected with 68% of the vote in 2020. Democrats have held this district since the last redistricting in 2012.
District 164: This suburban Philadelphia district has been vacant since July, when Democrat Margo Davidson resigned. This district has also been in Democratic hands for the past decade.
Democrat Gayle Goldin resigned this Providence area district in August to accept a job in the Biden administration. This is a deep blue district; Goldin had faced only write-in opposition since being first elected in 2012. However, Republicans are fielding a candidate, Alex Cannon, in the special election. The Democratic nominee is Samuel Zurier.
Republicans are hoping to flip this San Antonio area district that has been vacant since August, when Democrat Leo Pacheco resigned. Republican John Lujan (42% of the vote) and Democrat Frank Ramirez (20%) were the top two finishers in the September 28 all-party primary. As no candidate received a majority, the race will be decided in this runoff.
Although Lujan, with 42%, finished well ahead of Ramirez at 20%, the aggregate Democratic/Republican vote across the five-person primary field was an almost identical 50/50 split, indicating this may be a highly competitive runoff.